How can I configure the Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) Windows Firewall from a command line?

Windows 2003 SP1 improves the Netsh command to let you specify the “firewall” argument to access the firewall configuration. Netsh lets you

* configure the default state of Windows Firewall (Off, On, On with no exceptions)
* configure which exceptions should be enabled, including the scope of each exception and whether exceptions are enabled on all interfaces or per-interface
* configure logging options
* configure the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) handling options
* manage the exceptions list

For example, to enable the firewall, use the command

netsh firewall set opmode enable

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